Did the people in the Bible have last names?
Here's the answer:
People in the Bible didn't have last names like the last names we have in the present day.
In the present day, almost everyone has a last name. Back during Jesus' time, people didn't really have a last name. You could have something behind your name, such as where you were from or your trade. However, you wouldn't have a last name, like Brown, Smith, or Jones.
Many people were known as being the son of someone. Simon was known as the "son of Jonah." In this way, people would know that Simon was Jonah's son. Concerning trades, there is a person in the Bible known as “Simon the tanner” (Acts 10:6). Simon's last name wasn't tanner. His profession was being a tanner, someone who worked with leather.
Jesus does not have the last name of “Christ.” He has no last name. Christ means that Jesus is the Messiah. It can be easy to confuse these things, but Jesus Christ means Jesus is the Messiah. Even though in the modern day we have last names, during the time of the Bible, people didn't have last names.
"Next were Philip and Bartholomew, and also Thomas and Matthew the tax collector. Two more were James, son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus" (Matthew 10:3).
"Then the LORD became very angry with Moses. He said, 'What about your brother, Aaron the Levite?'" (Exodus 4:14a).
"He is staying with another Simon, a man who works with leather. His house is by the sea" (Acts 10:6).